Thursday, May 30, 2019: 3:00 PM-4:30 PM
Pacific B/C (Hyatt Regency San Francisco)
Theme: Epidemiology and Etiology
Jennifer A. Bailey
J. David Hawkins
Prevention science models are founded on the notion that, if prior, modifiable risk and protective factors for negative outcomes can be identified, then risk behaviors and harmful outcomes, such as delinquency, substance use, and homelessness, can be prevented. The field has made great advances in the development and testing of theoretical models and preventive interventions, resulting in multiple, tested-effective programs for a range of risk behaviors and adverse outcomes. To the extent that these programs and theoretical models can be generalized across cultural contexts, they become even more valuable to reducing risk globally. The International Youth Development Study (IYDS) draws on the Social Development Model, a theory of the etiology of risk behavior, to understand whether etiologic processes leading to negative outcomes are generalizable cross-nationally. The IYDS began in 2002, and includes samples of youth from Mumbai, India, the State of Victoria in Australia, and the State of Washington in the US. Paper 1 uses data from Victoria and Washington to examine adolescent predictors (family, school, peer, community) of past year homelessness at age 25. Some cross-national differences in levels of risk and protective factors were found, however, these factors were equally predictive in the two states. Paper 2 examines risk and protective factors for adolescent depressive symptoms in Victoria and Washington. Risk and protective processes were similar, however, some gender differences in etiologic processes emerged. Paper 3 compares risk and protective processes for delinquency in Mumbai, India, Melbourne, Victoria, and Seattle, Washington. Community disorganization was strongly related to delinquent behavior as a school-level context effect in Mumbai and Melbourne, but not Seattle. Other risk factors, such as peer delinquency, low school commitment, and poor family management exhibited cross-nationally consistent associations with delinquency. Implications of the current findings for cross-national transfer and future directions for research on the cross-national generalizability of prevention science models will be discussed.
* noted as presenting author
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