Methods: Factor analyses (exploratory—EFA, and confirmatory—CFA) were used to explore the structure of the TTRS. Pearson-product moment correlations were used to examine the relationships between the TTRS and additional validated scales including the a) Illinois Bullying Scale (IBS), b) Social Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS; both teacher and child reports), and c) Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM).
Results: Pooled sample consisted of N=511, 9- through 15-year-olds (mean age = 11.94). Of students for whom data were obtained, 47.8% were males and 52.5% were Caucasian. A three-factor solution was decided upon in EFA and confirmed via CFA based on fit statistics and theoretical examination of the factors. The factors were named: a) “Other Involved”, b) “Low Self-Regulation”, and c) “Under the Radar”. Significant correlations in the expected direction were evident. Medium to large correlations were demonstrated between the two parts of the TTRS scales (0.43 ³ r ³ 0.90). Small to large correlations were evident between the TTRS and the IBS (0.35 ³ r ³ 0.51), SEARS-Teacher (-0.06 ³ r ³ -0.22), SEARS-Child (-0.30 ³ r ³ -0.20), and CAMM (0.16 ³ r ³ 0.39).
Conclusions: Manipulation should be an important target in social emotional learning curricula, yet few programs include it. This study outlines preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the TTRS, designed to measure manipulative behaviors. Initial validation evidence is provided for the TTRS through establishment of the factor structure of the TTRS and relationships between these factors and previously validated scales. Further studies are recommended.