Method: The sample included 172,901 secondary students and a cohort of 60 schools who began implementing SWPBS during the same four-year period. Results of Generalized Estimating Equations revealed that SWPBS implementation is associated with significant decreases in disciplinary referrals, out-of-school suspensions, and unexcused absences.
Results: The odds of disciplinary recidivism by SWPBIS exposure decreased by approximately 40%. However, implementation of SWPBS did not significantly impact disciplinary disparities across different racial and ethnic groups or academic achievement.
Conclusion: These findings provide additional evidence for the effectiveness of SWPBS in middle and high school settings on student behavior, but found no evidence for impact on disparities or achievement. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.