Methods: We used data from Wave 8 (spring, 2017, n= 686) of an ongoing longitudinal study about risk behaviors. Participants were 56.0% female, 31.4% Hispanics, 29.4% White, 27.9% Black, and 11.3% other (e.g., Asian American, Native Americans) with a mean age of 22 years (SD = .79). Controlling for age, gender, and race, we ran three multivariate logistic regression analyses in Mplus 8 to examine if physical IPV, threatening IPV, and psychological IPV perpetration and victimization predicted gun carriage, threatened someone with a gun, and having been threatened with a gun.
Results: Analyses indicated that physical IPV perpetration was associated with having threatened someone with a gun (Adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.22, 5.03). Conversely, physical IPV victimization was associated with having been threatened with a gun (Adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.25). Experienced threats of IPV or psychological IPV was not significantly linked to gun violence. No significant associations were found between gun carriage and IPV.
Conclusions and Implications: While our data did not permit us to determine whether firearm threats were directly related to IPV incidents, findings suggest that a history of threatening someone with a gun was linked to physical IPV perpetration and having been threatened with a gun was linked to physical IPV victimization. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the temporal relationship between these variables. Regardless, the co-occurrence identified in this study suggests that IPV prevention programs should address firearm safety and that firearm trainings should include a healthy relationship component.