Beyond individual trauma, the issue of an intergenerational process of trauma contributing to a collective trauma is also at stake for these refugee parents. The relation between parent PTS and parenting and a possible consequent impact on their children’s mental health is a key issue. This qualitative study explores the parental cognitions of refugee mothers and fathers through interviews of 14 Eritrean refugee parents, with a focus on their self-efficacy. Their feeling of safety, control, satisfaction and competence as parents appeared to be at a higher level than expected, except for parents separated from their children. This study contributes to the understanding of the needs of refugee families and the design and implementation of relevant support for these families.