Method: Using a representative sample of 1090 Turkish fathers with children aged between 0-3, fathers’ perceived support from spouse and family, working hours, use of paternity leave, attitudes towards traditional gender norms, caregiving (feeding, cleaning, following development), warmth (caring about infant’s feelings, showing affection) and use of punishment were measured. Structural equation modeling is used to test direct and indirect effects. Bias-corrected conﬁdence intervals are estimated using 1000 bootstrapped samples.
Results: Higher perceived family support, better working conditions, and non-conformity to traditional gender roles are expected to be associated with increased life satisfaction in fathers and in turn, increased life satisfaction is expected to be linked with greater engagement in child care, increased warmth, and decreased use of harsh discipline.
Conclusions: The current study offers a unique perspective by establishing predictors of involved fathering during infancy and introducing fathers’ satisfaction with life as an explanatory variable in the relationship between environmental factors and parenting behaviors. Implications of findings for policy and practice will be discussed.